|Date of Web Publication||14-Nov-2013|
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. Poster Presentation. Emerg Sci 2013;2, Suppl S1:17-21
Identification of bioactive compounds in wheatgrass extracts having anticancerous properties
Archana Singh, Poonam, Kunal Mukhopadhyay
Department of Biotechnology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important component of the human diet throughout the world. Epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of whole grain and whole-grain products are protective against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Wheat germinated over a period of 6-10 days is generally called wheatgrass. During germination, vitamins, minerals, and phenolic compounds including flavonoids are synthesized in wheat sprouts. Wheat grass has antioxidant potential and is a good source of mineral nutrients and also a detoxificant and helps restore healthy cells. Wheatgrass extract significantly reduce the production of benzo-pyrene a highly carcinogenic substance in rats. In other words, cell mutation was reduced causing a reduction in the likelihood of cancer developing. So wheatgrass appears to be a natural cancer prophylactic. In the present study extraction, fractionation and different antioxidant assays has been carried out using wheat grass extracts, prepared in different solvents like ethanol, methanol and water were optimized to evaluate maximum antioxidant potential. Different biomolecules were separated using thin layer chromatography. The antioxidant assays like DPPH, ABTS AND ORAC were carried out both with crude extract and different fractions.
b-sitosterol promotes apoptosis and inhibits cellular proliferation in MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines
Atheer A Al-Ftlawi 1,2 , Md Zafaryab 1 , Anees A Al-Ftlawi 2 , Md Irshad 1 , Zakia Kazim 1 , Irfan Ahmad 1 , Ayaz Ahmad 2 , Zubair Bin Hafeez 1 , M Moshahid Alam Rizvi 1
1 Department of Biosciences, Genome Biology Lab, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 2 Department of Pharmacology, Institute of pharmacy, NIMS, Rajasthan, India
Background: b-sitosterol reported to be effective against multiple human cancerous cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-proliferation effect of b-sitosterol and the molecular mechanism in induction of apoptosis through p53, Bax/Bcl2 pathway on human cancerous cell lines. Methods: Human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and hepatoma (HepG2) cells were treated b-sitosterol with varying concentrations and time intervals. Cell viability was evaluated through MTT and LDH assays. DNA fragmentation and reverse transcriptase PCR assays were employed to detect cellular apoptosis and signalling pathway. Results: The results demonstrated that b-sitosterol suppressed cellular proliferation and induced apoptosis on MCF-7 and HepG2 cancer cells in a dose and time dependent manner. It was found to be associated with induction of apoptosis. The mechanism of action of this molecule through which it triggered apoptosis was p53 dependent Bcl-2/Bax pathway. b-sitosterol increased Bax activity and decreased Bcl-2, indicating that b-sitosterol induced apoptosis on a p53 dependent pathway. Conclusions: The findings suggest that b-sitosterol may have a potentiality to be developed as an anticancer molecule in its individual capacity or with some other similar molecules.
In Silico analysis of flavopiridol and its analogues with Cdk4: Search for potent anticancer drug
Darakhshan Jabin, Shankaracharya
Department of Biotechnology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) is a member of the protein kinase family which is essential for G1/S phase transitions of the cell cycle thus play important role in cell cycle regulation. Flavopiridol is an approved anticancer drug which acts on cyclin dependent kinases as drug-target. Therefore, in order to identify more promising inhibitor (ligand) of cdk4 than flavopiridol, virtual screening and flexible molecular docking study using GLIDE software was performed as well as ADME properties prediction of best 10 potential analogues based on GScore was also performed. Results showed that among 500 selected compounds of ZINC database, ZINC_58534290 is best interacting ligand with cdk4 having lowest GScore - 7.77 and satisfies all parameters of ADME properties prediction. The result of ToxPredict server for toxicity prediction has also favored the compound. These results (data) can help further in generation of different variants by slome modification in moieties of ZINC_58534290 in order to find most effective anticancer drug than existing flavopiridol.
Development of new, effective therapies for cancer via nanotechnology
Lubna Sheikh, Swati Mishra, Suprabha Nayar
Materials Science and Technology Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Burmamines, Jamshedpur, Jharkand, India
For the first time cancer has surpassed heart disease as the number one killer. This worrisome statistic has resulted not from an increase in the incidence of cancer, but because deaths from heart disease have dropped nearly in half while the number of cancer-related deaths has remained about the same. This fact accentuates the need for a new generation of more effective therapies for cancer. Back in September 2004, the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) launched the Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer to stimulate and coordinate research in biology, engineering and materials science to push cancer nanotechnology forward. Nanotechnology is being applied to cancer in two broad areas :0 t0 he development of nanovectors, such as nanoparticles, which can be loaded with drugs or imaging agents and then targeted to tumors, and high throughput nanosensor devices for detecting the biological signatures of cancer. Our group is concentrating on the former issue where we are synthesizing iron oxide nanoparticles which can be used as a contrast agent, in hyperthermia treatment of cancer and magnetic field assisted targeted drug delivery. Combined, such versatile nanoparticles could lead to earlier diagnosis and better treatment for patients with cancer.
Correlation between promoter hypermethylation of PTEN gene and hormone receptor status in breast cancer patients
Zakia Kazim, Ahmad Perwez, Zafaryab, Atheer Abbas Yaseen Al-Ftlawi, Moshahid A Rizvi
Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India
PTEN is a now a recognized tumor suppressor gene located at chromosome 10q23.3 loss of PTEN function has been implicated in progression of malignancies like glioblastomas, proastate cancer and breast carcinoma. We examined 181 breast cancer specimens and adjacent normal tissue for control cases and evaluated PTEN promoter hypermethylation through methylation specific PCR and we performed expressional protein of PTEN using IHC technique. In addition to the expression of ER/PR and Her2 through the same technique. We observed that the frequency of loss of PTEN protein expression in breast carcinoma was 54% (97/181) and the frequencies of promoter hypermethylation of PTEN gene was 66% (120/181). Out of the total 181 breasts cancer samples 34(19%) were found to be "Triple-negative" breast cancer i.e. no expression of trio as the breast cancer biomarkers viz ER/PR/Her2 which is generally considered that the patients should not have developed cancer. Among these 34 triple negative breast cancer samples 26(76%) demonstrated loss of PTEN expression as well. Out of these 26 cases in which we observed additional loss of PTEN expression we found that 18 (69%) patients had hypermethylation in PTEN promoter gene. We concluded that loss of PTEN expression among these triple negative cases could be key factor as a result of which patient developed the disease. The role of PTEN gene may therefore provide valuable insight into the possibility of inclusion of PTEN as the fourth pillar of diagnosis in breast cancer.
Ca 2+ efflux from temperature sensitive liposomes and in situ formation of metal cholate liposome gels: Basic studies and potentials for sustained site-specific drug delivery
Subhendu Das, Saroj Kumar Nayak, Rajesh K Singh
Department of Chemistry, North Orissa University, Baripada, Orissa, India
Liposomes or vesicles are bimimetic containers for the delivery of drugs at the local site for an extended period of time. Another class of popular materials for sustained release is polymer hydrogels. In the present work a novel liposome/hydrogel soft assembly is explored which may be potentially useful for drug delivery applications. Such hybrids combine the features of liposomes and polymer to ensure a sustained local drug delivery. We report thermally triggered release of Ca +2 from liposomal compartments constituted as 90 mol% DPPC and 10 mol% DMPC to induce rapid gelation of a solution of calcium cholate and AgNO 3 (extravesicular precursor fluid). Calcium chloride loaded liposomes were prepared using the lipid film rehydration method. The formation of unilamellar bilayer were supported by the fluorometric studies using a compatible and labeled fluoropore (NBD-PS). Hydrogels were obtained by mixing Ca +2 loaded liposome with extravesicular precursor fluid and incubating the mixing content at 37C. The concentration of the cholate during gelation was sublytic in order to avoid vesicle solubilization. The integrity of liposomes within the hydrogels were preserved during gelation as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of low concentration of cholate (for example 0.05 mM) also permitted spectrophotometric monitoring of Ca +2 efflux for Ca-vesicles employing calcium sensitive dye, Arsenazo III. We expect that this simple experiment may also be useful for developing implantable as well as rapidly gelling injectable biomaterials for site-specific drug delivery.
The significance of glycogen synthase kinase 3 mediated signaling in the disease progression and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma
Sushree Shibanee Dash, Shatish Kumar Kranti, Rajakishore Mishra
Molecular Oncology Lab, Centre for Life Sciences, Central University of Jharkhand, Brambe, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world, and its incidence varies in different ecogeographic regions. Although there are several differences in disease occurrence and etiology between populations, there is one aspect of these tumors that is highly similar worldwide. Oral tumors are mainly asymptomatic initially, are aggressive, and frequently invade and migrate to distant organs, making them difficult to treat. Recent developments suggest a central role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) in various human cancers either as a tumor suppressor or as a tumor promoter. GSK3 is a Ser/Thr protein kinase, and there is emerging evidence suggests that active GSK3 may act as a tumor suppressor in oral cancer. The evidence supports a link between the key players in oral cancer that control invasion/metastasis, and regulation of these factors by GSK3. GSK is one of the most attractive targets and is well understood because of extensive prior research on it. Therefore, currently it is being evaluated as a potential target for the treatment of oral cancer.
RAPD biomarkers of DNA damage at low exposure to arsenic, a potent human carcinogen
Parimal K Khan, Amod Kumar, Vibudh P Kesari
Department of Zoology, Toxicogenetics Laboratory, Patna University, Patna, Bihar, India
Arsenic, a groundwater contaminant of global concern and a potent human carcinogen, has been found genotoxic in several human and animal studies. The present work investigates the sensitivity of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to study DNA damaging effect of arsenic, both at its lower and higher exposure levels, in goldfish (Carassius auratus). The experimental fish, segregated into four groups, were exposed to 0, 10, 50 and 1000 ΅gL−1 of arsenic in aquaria water for 15 consecutive days. Genomic DNA extraction was followed by RAPD-PCR amplification for each fish separately. One arbitrary decamer primer (PUZ-19) appeared as most informative, exhibiting marked alterations in the RAPD profiles between arsenic exposed and unexposed (control) samples. Eleven loci were amplified in each experimental group by the primer PUZ-19 and four clear polymorphic bands were detected in the gel. The X th and XIII th amplification loci, prominent in the unexposed group, failed to appear in the arsenic exposed groups. In contrast, the I st and XI th RAPD bands appeared as new amplification loci in all the exposed groups. Alterations in genomic DNA, however, did not exhibit a clear dose-dependent tendency. RAPD assay, therefore, appears as a sensitive and potential tool for detecting alterations in genomic DNA induced by arsenic, reflecting the damages as changes in RAPD profiles even at the lowest exposure level of 10 mgL−1 (the guideline value of arsenic for drinking water).
Micro ribonucleic acid and the p53 network
Soma Roy, Supriya Shrivastava, Shalini Jane Mundu
Department of Biotechnology, Ranchi Women's College, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
Tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in tumor prevention. As a transcription factor, p53 mainly exerts its function through regulating the cell cycle and thus function as a tumor suppressor that is involved in preventing cancer. Loss of function of p53 gene is a frequent and important event in the genesis of many human malignancies. To maintain its proper function p53 is tightly regulated by complex p53 network which is composed of hundreds of genes and their products. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, which play a key role in regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Low and high expression of some microRNAs is significantly associated with various kinds of cancer. miRNAs are involved in the regulation of gene expression by the silencing of genes, this occurs through RNA interference (RNAi) thus resulting in the prevention of protein synthesis. In this review, we discuss how mRNAs are concurrently regulated at the post-transcriptional level by microRNAs (miRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), which consequently modify the p53 transcriptional program in a cell. We also discuss the role of specific miRNAs and RBPs that are direct transcriptional targets of p53 and how they act co-ordinately with p53 target genes to orchestrate p53-dependent cellular responses. This work will offer perspectives on future applications of cancer therapy.
Role of mutagen in increasing the production of anticancerous alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus
Nirmala College, Doranda, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
In spite of significant development in the field of production of synthetic therapeutic agents, medicinal plants are still the major source of raw material. Because of increasing deforestation and increasing demand of medicinal plants by pharmaceutical industries, it has become necessary to have their organized cultivation.Apart from this attempt should also be made to exploit the maximum production of active ingredient from the plants of medicinal use. Genetics can play an important role in this case. Keeping this fact in view an endevour was to achieve maximum production of alkaloid from Catharanthus roseus, an anticancerous plant, following treatment with ethyl methane sulphonate, a mutagenic agent. Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don is one of the important anticancerous plants. It is a handsome, ever blooming garden plant. The diploid chromosome number is 2n=16.It contains many alkaloids from different parts of the plants, but it has assumed more importance after the isolation of vinblastin and vicristine. Both these alkaloids are very effective in the treatment of cancer particularly Leukemia and Hodgkin`s disease. Due to the presence of these alkaloids. C. roseus is nick named as 'Flower that cures cancer' and become king in the realm of anticancerous plants.
To exploit the increased quantity of anticancerous alkaloids from the plant, C.roseus was treated with EMS. The two varieties i.e. pink flower and white flower of C. roseus were treated with different concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5%) of EMS. Post treatment morphological attributes like plant height, mean number of secondary branches, mean number of flowers and mean number of pods per plant exhibited physical and numerical enhancement in M1 generation but showed marked reduction in M2 generation. 0.4% concentration was found to be most efficient in inducing above attributes. Since, leaves are the source of anticancerous alkaloids, the positive response shown by the plant attributes in M1 generation after EMS treatment may be speculatively correlated with probable increase in the alkaloid content, which in turn will be boon to the cancer patients and boost for the pharmaceutical industries.
Computational identification of micro ribonucleic acid and their micro ribonucleic acid targets in Withania somnifera dunal
Budhayash Guatam, Maruti Nandan Mishra, Atul Kumar Singh 1 , Sunil Kumar 2
Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, JSBB Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (Deemed-to-be-University) Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, 1 Center for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, I.I.T. Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, 2 Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
Despite its efficacy against diabetes mellitus, the relatively low yield (0.01%-0.8%) of Withanolide in Withania somnifera dunal is a serious limitation to the commercialization of the drug. A better understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of Withanolide and its regulation by both exogenous and endogenous factors is essential to improve Withanolide yield. Increasing evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play multiple roles in various biological processes. In this study, we search for potential miRNAs and their targets in W. somnifera dunal. A total of six potential miRNAs were predicted, which belong to the miR414 and miR1310 families. Furthermore, eight potential target genes were identified in this species. Among them, seven genes encode proteins those play important roles in Withanolide biosynthesis, including HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS) and cytochrome P450. In addition, a gene coding for putative AINTEGUMENTA, which is involved in signal transduction and development, was also predicted as one of the target. This is the first in silico study to indicate that miRNAs target genes encoding enzymes involved in Withanolide biosynthesis, which may help to understand the miRNA-mediated regulation of Withanolide biosynthesis in W. somnifera dunal.
Prospects and possibilities of using medicinal plants for cancer abatement in Jharkhand
Meena Misra, Ekhlaque Khan, Kiran Kachhap, Anisha Rupashree, Amit K Gautam, AN Misra
Centre for Life Sciences, Central University of Jharkhand, Ratu-Lohardaga Road, Brambe, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
Jharkhand state has diverse plant wealth evolving from the Gondwana flora to domesticated ones. However, these biodiversity is not yet fully explored and exploited for their medicinal and other commercial properties. Only, about 30 plant derived compounds have been isolated so far for their anticancerous properties. These compounds are currently under clinical trials. The incidence of cancer is reported to be high in Jharkhand especially in ethnic communities mainly because of poor education, smoking, tobacco chewing, socio-economic conditions and unavailability of modern medical facilities.
Plants derived natural products such as flavanoids, terpenes, alkaloids and antioxidants have received considerable attention in recent years, due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemo-preventing effects. A high antioxidant activity is a good indicator of high anticancer activity. Most of these properties are exploited in the traditional medicine and the indigenous medicine-Ayurveda. Ayurveda gives a separate class of immunomodulatory botanicals named called Rasayanas. Most of these herbal products alter immune function and display an array of immunomodulatory effects. In the present paper we explore the possible exploitation of diverse plants and their products for cancer treatment and immunomodulatory effects.
Oral cancer - Things you should know
Manmohan K Akhouri
HCG Curie Abdur Razzaque Ansari Cancer Institute, Apollo Hospital Group Irba Ranchi, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
Oral cancer is a disease in which cancer cells form in lips, mouth or throat causes of oral cancer are tobacco and alcohol use chewing gutka and pan masala. A diet low in fruits and vegetable, cancer of lip can be cause by sun exposure. Members of HPV family of viruses can infect the mouth and throat. Chewing betal nut. Signs and symptoms of oral cancer mouth sore irritation, lump on thick palate in mouth, lip, throat that does not heal. A white or red patch in mouth. Difficulty in chewing or swallowing. Swelling of jaw, pain in one ear without hearing loss. Loose teeth, bleeding gums, decayed teeth. Oral ulcer which is not healing. How oral cancer diagnose regular dental check-up, X-ray, CT scan, MRI to find a hidden tumor. Biopsy and FNAC to look for the presence of cancer cells. Staging of oral cancer Stage I or Stage II oral cancer is a small tumor and no cancer cells are found in lymph node. Stage III and Stage IV oral cancer is a large tumor. The cancer may have invaded nearby tissues on spread to lymph nodes on other parts of body. Treatment early oral cancer may be treated with chemotherapy, surgery or radiotherapy. Advanced cancer may have combination of treatment. How to prevent oral cancer avoiding risk factors like: Quitting, smoking, paan gutka. Quitting alcohol use. Using sunscreem, healthy nutritional diet and excersing and regular dental visit.
Ligand conjugated "PNIPAM: Nanoparticles in targeted drug delivery across blood-brain barrier
Md Imtiyaz Aslam, Rohit Kumar Verma, PK Roy 1 , SP Roy 1
Departments of Biotechnology, and 1 Zoology, T.M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India
In the present study the application of ligand conjugated Poly-N-isopropyl Acryl amide (PNIPAM) nanoparticle in targeted drug delivery across blood - brain barrier against neuro-degenerative disorders in Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus was studied. PNIPAM nanoparticles are the self-assembled biodegradable synthetic compounds. PNIPAM may be temperature or pH sensitive. The characteristics nano size of these nanoparticles enables the drug to cross easily the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the entry of toxic substances that circulate in the blood stream across the brain. Hence, BBB is a life-supporting protection for the brain. The BBB provides a severe limitation for the delivery of most drugs to the brain because they do not cross the BBB sufficiently. A large number of potentially useful drugs, such as central nervous system (CNS)-active agents, do not able to cross the BBB at all or in sufficient amounts. The PNIPAM nanoparticles have hydrophobic core and can be used for delivery of any hydrophobic molecules. The drug delivery is receptor mediated across the BBB. When the nanoparticle conjugated drug and ligand associated efficiently deliver drug to the target cell possessing receptor for the ligand. The toxicity assay of PNIPAM nanoparticles shows that they are non-toxic to the cells at a concentration of 0.8 mg/ml. The non-toxic behavior at certain calculated concentration PNIPAM may be widely used in the targeted drug delivery system for the neurodegenerative disorders in mammalian systems.
Oral cancer awareness programme in Ranchi district
Sushree Shibanee Dash, Shatish Kumar Kranti, Rajakishore Mishra
Molecular Oncology Lab, Centre for Life Sciences, Central University of Jharkhand, Brambe, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
Background: Oral cancer is a major problem in the tribal dominated state like Jharkhand. The common people here are addicted to smoke and smokeless tobacco along with desi Hadia and Mahua. The scientific evidence relating to the burden of oral cancer attributable to tobacco and alcohol abuse has been known since long back. It is felt the need for teaching program concentrating on oral cancer education in the local community. The goal of this programme is to evaluate the awareness of oral cancer in school/college going students and local village population of Ranchi district. Methods: A questionnaire was designed to determine the level of knowledge about oral cancer, its risk factors and symptoms has been used to conduct the study. The questionnaire has been approved by Institutional Human Ethical Committee of Central University of Jharkhand. Results: Although more than 80% of the participants surveyed recognized the association between oral cancer and chewing and smoking related tobacco use, most of them differ concerning Hadia and Mahua use cessation since it is related with the tradition of local people. Conclusion: The composition and ingredients of Hadia and Mahua are different from alcohol. These products may alter certain biological pathways in oral cavity to fuel neoplastic developments. The present short term study revealed several treatment approaches before the scientific community to design/manufacture/navigate through clinical trials, and come up with the best region specific individualized therapeutic strategies to combat this deadly disease in future.
Efficient drug delivery to cancerous hepatocytes using "PNIPAM" nanoparticles
Rohit Kumar Verma, Richa Roy, Md Imtiyaz Aslam, SP Roy
Department of Biotechnology, T. M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India
In the present study the nanoparticles based drug delivery to the hepatocytes were performed using receptor mediated drug transportation. Liver is a vital organ and constantly being under threat of physiological stress caused by different sources. Liver is highly prone to cancer if it fails to metabolize and exposed to carcinogens. The receptor mediated drug delivery increases the efficacy of carcinoma treatment related to the liver. Poly-N-Isopropyl Acrylamide (PNIPAM) a smart nanoparticle conjugated with drug and ligand against a particular hepatocyte receptor effectively delivers the drug to the target hepatocytes showing carcinogenic characters. The "PNIPAM" is ligated with peroxisome proliferators ligands against the nuclear receptors (NRs) of the cancerous hepatocytes.When conjugated with the drug erlotinib (Tarceva; ) in the hydrophobic core of "PNIPAM" showed remarkable recovery against cancer than treated with the drug alone.
The test animal in the present study was female Swiss Albino mice, Mus musculus balb/C strain with average body weight ranging from 25 to 30 g for the assessment of drug delivery to aflatoxin induced liver cancer. Aflatoxin is a fungal carcinogen secreted by the Aspergillus flavus and related species growing on the food grains. The results were analysed with the help of histological slides alongwith the regio-selective accumulation of the drug tested with Spectrophotometric analysis. The "PNIPAM" at the concentration of
0.6 mg/ml were used for the targeted drug delivery.
Truth and gift of smokeless tobacco!
Harashit Kumar Mandal
Jodhpur National University, Narnadi, Jhanwar Road, Bornada, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
Cancer is a family of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation. The growth of normal animal cells is carefully regulated to meet the needs of the complete organism. In contrast, the regulation is lost in cancer cells, which grow and divide in an uncontrolled and unregulated manner, ultimately spreading throughout the body and interfering with the function of normal tissues and organs. Many chemical carcinogens act by damaging DNA and inducing mutation. Chemical carcinogens such as smokeless tobacco contribute to the development of cancer by stimulating cell proliferation. Smokeless tobacco is a blanket term that refers to a number of tobacco products that are used by means other than smoking. These uses include chewing, sniffing, placing the product between the teeth and gum, and application to the skin. Oral cancer appears as a growth or sore in the mouth that does not go away. Oral cancer, which includes cancers of the lips, tongue, cheeks, floor of the mouth, hard and soft palate, sinuses, and pharynx (throat), can be life threatening if not diagnosed and treated early. The most common symptoms of oral cancer include: swellings/thickenings, lumps or bumps, rough spots/crusts/or eroded areas on the lips, gums, or other areas inside the mouth etc. Risk factors for the development of oral cancer include: smokeless tobacco users i.e. users of dip, snuff, or chewing tobacco products are 50 times more likely to develop cancers of the cheek, gums, and lining of the lips, etc.
Reversal of epigenetic modifications: A potential target for cancer therapy
Shovit Ranjan, Praveen Kumar Sharma
Centre for Life Sciences, Central University of Jharkhand, Brambe, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
Epigenetic mechanisms are necessary for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in organisms, disruption of which can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. The distinct combinatorial patterns of the epigenetic modifications, collectively termed the epigenome, are key determinants of cell fate and gene activity. The initiation and progression of cancer, is now realized to involve epigenetic abnormalities along with other genetic alterations. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenomics have shown that epigenetic mechanisms like DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleososme remodeling and miRNA are important factors contributing in cancer progression. It has been found that patterns of DNA methylation and chromatin structure are profoundly altered in neoplastic transformation that includes genome-wide losses of, and regional gains in, DNA methylation. Recent evidence also suggests that epigenetic changes might lead to altered signal-transduction pathways during the early stages of tumor development. Furthermore, reversible nature of epigenetic modifications may lead to new field of epigenetic therapy. Some of the FDA-approved anti-cancer drugs are the molecules involved in epigenetic modification. Suggesting that strategies to reverse epigenetic modification might be useful in cancer prevention and therapy.
Building a cancer prediction system
Raju Manjhi, Syed Jaffar Abbas
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
Data mining can be defined as the process that digs through and analyzes enormous amount of data and then extract the knowledge or information out of it. Data mining also automates the process of prediction as it keeps the historical and the current data for the consideration. There is a lot of data available for the healthcare systems but there are not enough mining tools available to gather relevant information. In this paper a system has been developed "Cancer predictor", in the system Classification has been used for mining the data collected from PubMed, that helps in prediction of the likely disease and then analyzing the age and disease relationship by using the C4.5 method of Decision Tree. In this paper, analysis has been done to predict the frequent occurring disease in a particular age range, using C4.5. A Data mining Tool Sipina has been used to validate the output of the developed system.
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